2023 SOL TRACKER

National Overview of Statutes of Limitation (SOLs) for Child Sex Abuse

2023 SOL Reform Legislation and Best Current Civil and Criminal SOLs

PART I: OVERVIEW OF 2023 SOL REFORM BILLS

A. New SOL Reform Laws Going into Effect

B. SOL Reform Bills Passed in Legislature

C. SOL Reform Bills Introduced (24 States)

(9  to eliminate criminal;  8  to extend criminal;  15 to eliminate civil; 5  to extend civil; and 13  for civil window/revival)

PART II: OVERVIEW OF JURISDICTIONS WITH THE BEST CRIMINAL AND CIVIL SOL LAWS

D. No Criminal SOL (44 States, 5 U.S. Territories, & Federal)

E. No Civil SOL (15 States, 2 U.S. Territories, & Federal)

F. Revived Expired Civil SOL (24 States & 3 U.S. Territories)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Last updated: February 1, 2023

At a Glance:

 

PART I: OVERVIEW OF 2023 SOL REFORM BILLS

A. New SOL Reform Laws Going into Effect

B. SOL Reform Bills Passed in Legislature

C. SOL Reform Bills Introduced in Legislature

click here for summary of sol reform bills in 24 states that were introduced in legislature
Connecticut Would eliminate the civil SOL for sexual abuse, exploitation, and assault of minors and adults under age 21. (HB 6524 & HB 6455).
Hawaii

Would eliminate the civil SOL for claims against perpetrators for sex trafficking or promoting prostitution by coercion of minors and adults. (SB 1204).

Would extend the civil SOL from age 26 with a 3-year discovery rule to age 50 with a 5-year discovery rule. (SB 238 & HB 582). 

Would clarify the civil SOL for child sexual abuse and provide remedies of punitive damages and restorative justice. (HB 483 & SB 952).

Illinois

 

Would eliminate the civil SOL for childhood sexual abuse claims against a bankruptcy estate. (SB 153). 

Indiana

Would add the felony crime of sex with a minor with no SOL. (SB 67). 

Would extend the criminal SOL for felony sex offenses against children if expired by 5 years after discovery of DNA, recording or confession evidence.  (SB 48) (Passed in Senate, Jan. 24, 2023).

Would revive CSA claims against Boy Scouts of American in bankruptcy. (HB 1400).

Iowa Would eliminate the civil SOLs for child sexual abuse and open a 3-year revival window for expired claims related to these felonies against all types of defendants.  (SF 158).
Kansas Would eliminate the criminal and civil SOL for child sexual abuse felonies and open a permanent revival window for all claims for abuse occurring on or after July 1, 1984. (HB 2169 & SB 95).
Maryland

Would eliminate the civil SOL for sexual abuse of a minor and open a 2-year revival window for all expired claims. (HB 1).

Massachusetts

Would eliminate the civil SOL for child sex abuse and open a permanent revival window for all expired claims against all types of defendants. (SD 1173 & HD 3804).

Would extend the civil SOL for child and adult sexual abuse claims under Title IX to age 53. (HD 787).

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for rape of a child and indecent assault and battery of a child. (SD 1176).

Minnesota Would expand the gross misdemeanor crime of surreptitious intrusion of minors and adults and extend the criminal SOL to 3 years after the crime or after reporting to police. (HF 111 & SF 294) (HF 111 Hearing in H. Public Safety Fin. and Policy Comm., Jan. 12, 2023).
Mississippi

Would eliminate the civil SOL for CSA, exploitation and trafficking of minors and persons under the disability of unsoundness of mind. (HB 81) (Failed, Jan. 31, 2023).

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for felony sexual battery of minors and adults. (SB 2134 & HB 311) (Failed, Jan. 31, 2023).

Would extend the criminal SOL for conspiracy to commit CSA crimes to the SOL for the underlying crime. (SB 2337) (Passed out of S. Judiciary Comm., Jan. 31, 2023).

Would broaden the crime of sexual battery of a minor to include acts by a therapist with no criminal SOL. (HB 1371).

Missouri

Would eliminate the civil SOL for CSA against all defendants and open a permanent revival window for expired claims. (SB 416).

Would extend the civil SOL for sexual abuse of minors to age 55 and open a 2-year revival window for expired claims against all defendants. The SOL extension and window would also be applicable to victims who were disabled adults at the time of abuse. (HB 367).

Would shorten the civil SOL for personal injury claims related to child sex abuse against non-perpetrators to age 23 (age of majority, 21, plus 2 years). (HB 272 & SB 117) (SB 117 Passed out of S Judiciary Comm., Jan. 30, 2023). 

Nebraska

Would eliminate the civil SOL for CSA claims against private non-perpetrator individuals and entities. (LB 174).

Would remove sovereign immunity for CSA and extend the civil SOL against state entities to age 33 (age of majority, 21, plus 12 years). (LB 341).

Nevada Would broaden the crime of sex trafficking of children to include acts committed against adults posing as a child, with an extended SOL of age 36, or age 43 if the abuse was not reasonably discoverable by age 36. (SB 89).
New Jersey

Would eliminate the civil SOL for the following claims: sexual assault, endangering child welfare by engaging in sexual conduct that would impair or debauch the morals of the child, and recording a child in sexual acts. Would also eliminate civil SOL for any action filed against individual or entity which produces, distributes, or otherwise engages in the child pornography industry. (AB 427).

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for human trafficking, including sex trafficking, of minors and adults. (S 1141 & A 2636).

Would extend the criminal SOL for felony criminal sexual contact and endangering child welfare from age 23 to age 28 (age of majority, 18, plus 10 years) or 2 years from discovery. (SB 1151).

New York

Would eliminate the criminal SOL, extend the civil SOL to age 55, remove the notice of claim requirement, and open a 2-year revival window for sex trafficking offenses committed against minors and adults. (S 349 & A 1940).

Would eliminate the criminal and civil SOL for many child sexual abuse felonies and misdemeanors and open a permanent revival window for expired claims. (A 1854).

North Dakota Would open a 2-year revival window for ASA and ASA, including against public schools. (SB 2282) (S. Judiciary Comm. Hearing, Jan. 30, 2023).
Oklahoma

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for sex trafficking of minors and adults and extend DNA tolling of the criminal SOL from 3 to 12 years after DNA identification. (SB 294). 

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for all felony sex crimes against children, including CSAM and trafficking, and extend the DNA discovery rule for other crimes to 12 years after identification. (SB 716 & SB 1093).

Oregon Would eliminate the criminal SOL for all CSA felonies and misdemeanors. (HB 2302).
Pennsylvania A resolution proposing an amendment to the Pennsylvania Constitution to add a 2-year revival window for victims of child sex abuse and explicitly lift sovereign immunity for actions against the government. (SB 1) (Passed in Senate, Jan. 11, 2023). See CHILD USA Testimony.
South Carolina Would extend the civil SOL to age 55 or 5 years from discovery and open a 1-year revival window against all types of defendants, including the government. (SB 84).
Tennessee Would eliminate the civil SOL for child sexual abuse occurring on or after July 1, 2023. (SB 178 & HB 570).
Texas

Would eliminate the civil SOL for child sex abuse and trafficking and open a permanent revival window for expired claims. (HB 206).

Would extend the criminal SOL for child sex trafficking and sexual performance by a child to age 38 (age 18 plus 20 years). (HB 1769).

Utah

A joint resolution to amend the Utah Constitution to give the Legislature power to revive expired child sexual abuse claims against individuals. (H.J.R. 7) (Passed out of H. Judiciary Comm., Jan. 31, 2023).

Would eliminate the criminal SOL for felony and misdemeanor child sexual abuse crimes, including trafficking, and eliminate the civil SOL  against perpetrators of child sexual abuse and against family members or those living in the same home that failed to report or prevent the abuse. (HB 333).

Washington

Would eliminate the civil SOL for child sex abuse and open a permanent revival window for expired claims. (HB 1618) (Hearing in H. Civil Rights & Judiciary Comm., Jan. 31, 2023). 

Would extend the criminal SOL for felony sex offenses by extending when the SOL begins to run from 2 to 4 years from identification of perpetrator by DNA, regardless of victim’s age. (HB 1028) (Passed out of H. Community Safety, Justice and Reentry Comm., Jan. 19, 2023). See CHILD USA Testimony.

Total Twenty-four (24) States Considering SOL Reform in 2023

 

PART II: OVERVIEW OF JURISDICTIONS WITH THE BEST CRIMINAL AND CIVIL SOL LAWS

Best SOLs

 D. Jurisdictions with No Criminal SOL

click here for summary of criminal sol elimination laws in 44 states, federal government and d.c.
Alabama None for victims abused when they were under 16
Alaska None for victims abused when they were under 18 (felony charge)
Arizona None for victims abused when they were under 15 or under 18 if the abuser is a parent, guardian, teacher or priest or for child sex trafficking
Arkansas None (as of 2013)
California None for felony sex offenses
Colorado None for felony child sexual offenses
Connecticut None for class A felonies and for any offense involving sexual abuse, sexual exploitation or sexual assault of a minor, including risk of injury involving intimate contact with a victim under age 16.
Delaware None
Florida None for felony sexual battery of minors (defined by Fla. Stat. § 794.011)
Georgia None for (1) trafficking a person for sexual servitude; (2) cruelty to children in the first degree; (3) rape; (4) aggravated sodomy; (5) child molestation or aggravated child molestation; (6) enticing a child for indecent purposes; or (7) incest.
Hawaii None for 1st and 2nd degree sexual assault, and continuous sexual assault of a minor under 14
Idaho Elimination for felony sex abuse and lewd conduct with a child.
Illinois None for felonies and misdemeanors
Indiana None if offense committed with threats or use of deadly force (class A)
Iowa None for all child sex abuse felonies and misdemeanors.
Kansas None for rape
Kentucky None for felonies
Louisiana None for prosecutions of crimes for that are punishable by death or life imprisonment, including aggravated rape and forcible rape
Maine None for victim under 16 for felony and misdemeanor incest; unlawful sexual contact; sexual abuse of a minor; rape or gross sexual assault, formerly denominated as gross sexual misconduct.
Maryland None for felonies
Massachusetts None where victim under 16 (after +27 years DNA or other corroborating evidence needed)
Michigan None 1st degree crimes.
Minnesota None for the following felonies: solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution, sex trafficking, and criminal sexual conduct in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th degrees.
Mississippi None if (1) victim was abused during ages 14-16 and offender is 3 years older; (2) victim was abused under 14 and offender 2 years older; (3) victim was abused under 18 and abuser is in a position of authority or trust; or (4) involving touching or handling of children for lustful purposes
Missouri Murder, forcible rape, attempted forcible rape, forcible sodomy, attempted forcible sodomy, or any class A felony
Montana None
Nebraska None for felony 1st or 2nd degree sexual assault, or misdemeanor 3rd degree sexual assault when victim was abused under the age of 16, felony incest, sex trafficking of a minor and child pornography.
New Jersey None for sexual assault or aggravated sexual assault
New Mexico None for 1st degree felonies
New York None for 1st degree felonies
North Carolina None
Pennsylvania None for felony trafficking, sexual servitude, rape, statutory sexual assault, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse, sexual assault, institutional sexual assault, aggravated indecent assault and incest.
Rhode Island None for 1st degree sexual assault, and 1st and 2nd degree child molestation
South Carolina None
South Dakota None for class A, B, and C felonies; all child rape & forcible rape
Tennessee None for child sex abuse felonies and misdemeanors
Texas None for most sex crimes against young children
Utah None for rape of a child, object rape of a child, sodomy on a child, sexual abuse of a child, aggravated sexual abuse of a child, human trafficking of a child
Vermont None for aggravated sexual assault and sexual exploitation of a minor
Virginia None for felonies
Washington None for felony rape, sexual misconduct, child molestation, and sexual exploitation of a minor
West Virginia None for sexual assault, 1st degree sexual abuse, sexual abuse by parent, guardian, custodian, or person in a position of trust to child
Wisconsin None for 1st degree sexual assault, or repeated class A or B felony offenses against the same child
Wyoming None
Washington D.C. None for felony sexual abuse, child sexual abuse, sexual abuse of a minor, and incest.
Federal Government None
Total Forty-four (44) States, Federal Government and Washington D.C. Eliminated Criminal SOLs

 

 

E. Jurisdictions with No Civil SOL
(for at least some child sex abuse claims)

click here for summary of civil sol elimination laws in 15 states, federal government and 2 Territories
Alaska None for felony sex abuse of a minor and felony sexual assault (as of 2001), unlawful exploitation of a minor (as of 2003), and felony sex trafficking or felony human trafficking (as of 2013). Applies to claims against perpetrators arising after the effective dates and to non-expired claims arising before. (Alaska Stat. Ann. § 09.10.065).
Arizona None for action based on sex trafficking of minors and adults (as of 2021).  (AZ ST § 12-721).
Colorado None for sexual assault of minors and adults.  Applies to claims against all defendants arising after the effective date and to non-expired claims arising before (as of 2021). (SB21-073, 73rd General Assembly, 1st Reg. Sess. (2021)). Also, none for new cause of action for sexual misconduct with minors. Applies to claims against perpetrators, private institutions, and government for abuse in 2022 or later (as of 2022). (SB21-088, 73rd General Assembly, 1st Reg. Sess. (2021)).
Connecticut None if events forming the civil claim led to conviction of first-degree aggravated sexual assault or sexual assault. Applies to any cause of action arising from an incident committed prior to, on or after May 23, 2002. (Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-577e).
Delaware None for action based on sexual abuse of a minor by an adult. Effective as of July 10, 2007 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (Del. Code tit. 10, § 8145).
Florida None for sexual battery offenses committed against victims under 16 years old. Effective as of July 1, 2010 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (Fla. Stat. Ann. § 95.11).
Guam None for action based on child sexual abuse. Effective as of September 23, 2016 and it is fully retroactive, applying to call claims arising before on or after that date. (GU ST T. 7, § 11301.1).
Illinois None for action based on childhood sexual abuse. Effective as of January 1, 2014 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (IL ST CH 735 § 5/13-202.2).
Louisiana None for actions based on sexual abuse of a minor. Effective June 14, 2021 and applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (2021 La. Sess. Law Serv. Act 322 (H.B. 492)).
Maine None for action based on sexual contact or sexual act with a minor. Effective as of April 7, 2000 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (ME ST T. 14 § 752-C).
Minnesota None for action based on sexual abuse of a minor. Effective as of May 25, 2013 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (Minn. Stat. § 541.073(b)).
Nebraska None for action based on sexual assault of a child against a perpetrator. Effective as of August 24, 2017 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (Neb. Rev. St. § 25-228).
Nevada None for action based on child sex abuse against a perpetrator where there is clear and convincing evidence of the abuse. (Petersen v. Bruen, 106 Nev. 271, 281 (1990)). None for claims against a perpetrator or someone criminally liable for sexual abuse or exploitation of a minor (including trafficking, prostitution, and pornography) and a promoter, possessor, or viewer of CSAM (child sexual abuse material). Effective as of June 2, 2021, and it is fully retroactive, applying to all claims arising before on or after that date. (2021 Nevada Laws Ch. 288 (S.B. 203)).
New Hampshire None for action based on sexual assault or related offenses against minors and adults. Effective as of September 18, 2020. (NH ST § 508:4-g).
Northern Mariana Islands None for action based on child sexual abuse. Effective as of November 10, 2021, and it is fully retroactive, applying to call claims arising before on or after that date.  (2021 N.M.I. Pub. L. No. 22-12 (HB 22-2, SDI)).
Utah None for action based on intentional or negligent sexual abuse of a minor against a perpetrator. Effective as of March 23, 2015. (Utah Code § 78B-2-308).
Vermont None for action based on childhood sexual abuse. Effective as of July 1, 2019 and it is fully retroactive, applying to all claims arising before or on or after that date. (VT. STAT. ANN TIT. 12, § 522).
Federal Government

None for offenses against minors, including child sex abuse, sex trafficking, exploitation, and CSAM. Effective September 16, 2022 and also applies to non-expired claims arising before that date. (S 3103 Eliminating Limits to Justice for Child Sex Abuse Victims Act of 2022).

Total  Fifteen (15) States, Federal Government, and Two (2) Territories Eliminated Civil SOLs
2020 Civil Age Cap Ranking

 F. Jurisdictions that Revived Expired Civil SOL
(opened revival window or revived up to a certain age)

click here for summary of civil revival laws in 24 states and 3 Territories
Arizona (2019-20) 19-month window opened on May 27, 2019 for expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government and closed on December 31, 2020 – closed. Also revived SOL up to age 30. (AZ ST § 12-514; H.B. 2466, 54th Leg., 1st Reg. Sess. (Ariz. 2019)).
Arkansas (2022-23) 2-year window opens February 1, 2022 for expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – open. (ARK. CODE ANN. § 16-118-118).
California

(2003-04) 1-year window revived SOL against private organizations only – closed. (Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 340.1).

(2020-22) 3-year revival window opened on January 1, 2020 for expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – open. Also revives SOL up to age 40. (Cal. Civ. Proc. Code § 340.1).

Colorado* (2022-25) 3-year window opened on January 1, 2022 for claims of abuse occurring from 1960-2021 against perpetrators, private organizations and government, subject to damages caps – open.  Colorado’s new cause of action is not a revival law, but it is included in this section because it opens a window to justice for many survivors whose common law claims have expired. (SB21-088, 73rd General Assembly, 1st Reg. Sess. (2021)).
Connecticut (2002) Revives SOL up to age 48 against perpetrators, private organizations and government. (Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-577d).
Delaware

(2007-09) 2-year window revived SOL against perpetrators, private organizations and government – closed. (Del. Code tit. 10, § 8145).

(2010-12) Added 2-year window for healthcare providers because original window did not apply to claims against them – closed. (Del. Code tit. 18, § 6856).

Georgia (2015-17) 2-year window revived SOL against perpetrators only – closed. (Ga. Code § 9-3-33.1).
Guam

(2011) 2-year window revived SOL against their abusers – closed. (7 G.C.A. § 11306(2)).

(2016) Permanently revives all expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – open. (tit. 7 G.C.A. § 11301.1(b)).

Hawaii

(2012-14) 2-year window revived SOL against perpetrators and private organizations – closed. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 657-1.8).

(2014-16) Extended original window for another 2 years and expanded to include claims against the government – closed. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 657-1.8).

(2018-20) Extended window was open until April 24, 2020 – closed. (Haw. Rev. Stat. § 657-1.8).

Kentucky (2021) Revives SOL up to 5 years after the date the SOL expired. (2021 Kentucky Laws Ch. 89 (HB 472)).
Louisiana (2021) 3-year window revives SOL against any party – open. (2021 La. Sess. Law Serv. Act 322 (H.B. 492)).
Maine (2021) Permanently revives all expired claims against any party – open. (ME ST T. 14 § 752-C).
Massachusetts (2014) Revives SOL up to age 53 against perpetrators only. (Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 260, § 4C; 2014 Mass. Legis. Serv. Ch. 145 (H.B. 4126)).
Michigan (2018) 90-day window revived SOL for victims of Larry Nassar only – closed. (Mich. Comp. Laws § 600.5851b).
Minnesota (2013-16) 3-year window revived SOL against perpetrators and private organizations – closed. (Minn. Stat. § 541.073, 2013 Minn. Sess. Law Serv. Ch. 89 (H.F. 681)).
Montana (2019-20) 1-year window opened on May 7, 2019 for expired claims against perpetrators and entities – closed. Also revives SOL up to age 27. (Mont. Code § 27-2-216).
Nevada (2021) Permanently revives all expired claims against perpetrators or persons criminally liable for sexual abuse or exploitation of a minor (including trafficking, prostitution, and pornography) and promoters, possessors, or viewers of CSAM (child sexual abuse material) – open. Also, revives SOL up to age 38 for sexual abuse or exploitation of a minor against other defendants, with treble damages recoverable for participating in or covering up the abuse. (2021 Nevada Laws Ch. 288 (S.B. 203)).
New Jersey (2019-21) 2-year window opened on December 1, 2019 for expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – closed. Window applies to child sex abuse victims and those sexually assaulted as adults. Also revives SOL up to age 55. (2019 NJ Sess. Law Serv. Ch. 120 (SENATE 477)).
New York

(2019-20) 1-year window opened on August 14, 2019 for expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – closed. (2019 Sess. Law News of N.Y. Ch. 11 (S. 2440)).

(2020-21) Extended window via executive order (Executive Order No. 202.29) and then again with a 1-year window extension law keeping window open until August 14, 2021. (N.Y. C.P.L.R. 214-g; S.B. 7082, 2020 Leg., Reg. Sess. (N.Y. 2020)).

(2023-25) 2-Year window for expired gender-motivated violence, including CSA and sexual assault claims, will open on March 1, 2023 against all types of defendants for abuse that occurred in New York City—Manhattan,  Queens, Staten Island, Brooklyn, and the Bronx. (Am. L.L. 2022/021, eff. 1/9/2022).

North Carolina (2020-21) 2-year window opened on January 1, 2020 for expired civil claims – closed. (2019 North Carolina Laws S.L. 2019-245 (S.B. 199)).
Northern Mariana Islands (2021) Permanently revives all expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – open. (2021 N.M.I. Pub. L. No. 22-12 (HB 22-2, SDI)).
Oregon (2010) Revives SOL up to age 40 against perpetrators and private organizations. (O.R.S. § 12.117).
Rhode Island (2019) Revives SOL up to age 53 against perpetrator only. (RI ST § 9-1-51).
Utah* (2016) Permanently revived SOL up to age 53 against perpetrators or persons criminally liable and 3-year window opened on May 10, 2016 for expired claims against perpetrators and persons criminally liable. The revival law is not in effect because it was held unconstitutional in 2020. (Utah Code Ann. § 78B-2-308).
Vermont (2019) Permanently revives all expired claims against perpetrators, private organizations and government – open. (VT. STAT. ANN TIT. 12, § 522).
West Virginia (2020) Revives SOL up to age 36 against perpetrators and private organizations. (W.V. Code §55-2-15).
Washington D.C. (2019-21) 2-year window opened on May 3, 2019 for expired claims against perpetrators and entities – closed. Window applies to all child sex abuse victims up to age 40 or those who discovered their abuse less than 5 years ago, and in some circumstances, those sexually assaulted as adults. (D.C. Code § 12-301).
Total Twenty-Four (24) States and Three (3) Territories Revived Expired Civil SOLs